This potent chemical performs well in assay analysis.
Days after sowing; GA3: Data shown is the mean of five replicates Figure 3. The highest values of growth parameters were attained at 90 DAS with the combination treatment, i.
Physiological and biochemical characteristics 3. Photosynthetic pigments Gibberellic acid treatment increased the total chlorophyll and carotenoids content in the treated plants significantly.
Yield attributes Among all the treatments, the combined treatment, i. Discussion Very few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of gibberellic acid GA3 on fenugreek. Besides, no work has till date been cited exploring the effect of GA3 and P combination on fenugreek, which is an antidiabetic plant.
Hence, it might be considered as the first report of its kind, revealing the combined effect of GA3 and P on growth and other physiological attributes, yield and bioactive constituents of fenugreek. In the present investigation, the significant increase in the shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight, number of leaves and leaf area might be ascribed to the well known effects of GA3 and P in plants.
The studies conducted by Srivastava and Srivastava also support the fact that foliar application of GA3 could increase the plant height and leaf length in Catharanthus roseus. Increase in growth parameters in the plants treated with GA3 might be ascribed to the induction of inherent genetic potential of the plant by exogenous application of PGRs, which might cause increase in elongation of internodes as a result of cell division and cell wall extensibility Khan et al.
Growth promotion by the exogenous application of GA3 is also reported in C. In view of the essential role of phosphorus in plant growth and development Marschner,the increment in plant fresh and dry mass could be expected as a result of soil-applied phosphorus Table 1.
In the present study, the interactive effect of P and GA3 resulted into the best values of growth parameters. The beneficial effects of phosphorus on growth of plants have been reported with regard to different medicinal plants Chaudhary et al.
As per the present study, massive improvement The increased contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids could, possibly, be attributed to the enhancement of ultrastructural morphogenesis of plastids by GA3 as suggested by Arteca The enhancement of the photosynthetic pigments due to P application has earlier been reported by Naeem and Khan and Naeem, Khan, et al.
CA is one of the most abundant zinc containing proteins in plants. An increase in CA activity in this study could be ascribed to the ample accessibility of phosphorus at the site of its metabolism.
Furthermore, the enhanced activity of CA in the treated plants might have increased the CO2 fixation, which ultimately might be responsible for the increase in fresh and dry mass of treated plants Table 1. NR is known to be a rate-limiting enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and its level depends on a variety of factors, either external or internal.
The activity of this enzyme in plants gives a good approximation of the nitrogen eminence of the plant and is very often correlated with growth, yield and protein synthesis.
One of the reasons of GA3- enhanced NR activity in this study might be the GA3- improved leaf nitrogen content that might have increased the concentration of nitrate in the leaves to be acted upon by NR Figure 4.
According to Al Wakeel, Hamed, and Dadoura application of GA3 increased the root membrane permeability, which might ultimately facilitate the absorption, transport and utilization of mineral nutrient in plants as argued by Khan, Ansari, and Samiullah in the case of Brassica juncea.
Moreover, the plants treated with GA3 had more biomass as reflected from the shoot and root dry mass of the plants Table 1. The enhancement in plant biomass in the present investigation could presumably be as a result of increased uptake of nutrients, enhanced photosynthesis and improved translocation of photosynthates and other metabolites to the reproductive parts as suggested by Miniraj and Shanmugavelu regarding Capsicum annum.
As per Figure 4the enhancement in leaf-N, -P and -K content could be due to phosphorus-encouraged absorption of additional amount of nutrients from the soil as noted by Graciano, Goya, Frangi, and Guiamet with regard to Eucalyptus grandis. GA3 application improved the seed yield in fenugreek Table 2.
The increase in seed yield due to GA3 might be accounted for its possible positive effects on 1, seed weight, pod set, increased CO2 fixation and increase in leaf area.
Besides, the enhanced values of yield parameters with phosphorus might be because of its important role in root and shoot development, energy translocation and other metabolic processes of plants Marschner, The increase in seed yield ultimately might cause the increase in the yield of trigonelline.
Trigonelline N-methylnicotinic acid is derived from nicotinic acid and the reaction is catalyzed by S-adenosyl-L-methionine SAM -dependent nicotinate enzyme N-methyltransferase. The positive effect of GA3 on trigonelline content could be attributed to the improved plant growth and metabolism as observed in our study Tables 1 and 2 ; Figures 3 and 4.
Srivastava and Srivastava claimed that GA3 enhanced the accumulation of secondary metabolites like steroids, terpenoid and anthocyanin production.
Conclusion The present investigation will help to find out the optimum concentration of gibberellic acid to enhance the growth aspects and productivity of fenugreek. Also, the combination of GA3 and P was favourably effective in production of the antidiabetic alkaloid trigonelline. Both the organizations are highly acknowledged regarding this research work.
Elicitation of trigonelline and 4-hydroxyisoleucine with hypoglycemic activity in cell suspension cultures of Trigonella foenum graecum L. The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 2, 80— Exogeneous application of gibberellic acid counteracts the ill effects of sodium chloride in mustard. Turkish Journal of Biology, 29, —Gibberellic acid (GA 3) plays an important role in many plant growth and development processes.
In order to evaluate the effect of GA 3 on plant growth, return bloom, and fruit quality of rabbiteye blueberry, three representative cultivars (Powder blue, Garden blue, .
Effect of different times and concentrations of Gibberellic acid on growth and yield before transplantation and in control plot sprayed at the time of fruit set, respectively (Table 1).
Gibberellic Acid can affect growth by its effect on cell growth and cell elongation. Such effects are often seen in stem growth as well as root growth. Plant growth regulator Gibberellic Acid used on plants. Increase plant or crop yield; There are numerous research paper published also.
Just be aware that there is a great deal of. processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction and leaf and fruit senescence.
The stimulative response of gibberellic acid, which known to be one of the endogenous growth regulators, could be attributed to its unique roles in the plant growth and development as reported by many investigators. Gibberellic acid (GA 3) is a plant growth hormone (C 19 H 22 O 6) that regulates seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion, fruit development, flowering and stimulation of secondary metabolite production in plants.
The two hypotheses in this experiment are as follows: Hypothesis number one states that Gibberellic acid allows for stem elongation in plants. Hypothesis number two. The rosette complex in the rosette phenotype plant contains less gibberellic acid naturally and therefore grows shorter.